Per familiarizzare i partner del progetto con questi termini e per renderli più noti, è stato creato un glossario dei termini.
Able to take liquid in through the surface and to hold it.
An adsorbent material causes a substance, usually a gas, to form a very thin layer on its surface.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface. This process creates a film of the adsorbate (solute) on the surface of the adsorbent (solvent). This process differs from absorption, in which a fluid (the absorbate) is dissolved by or permeates a liquid or solid (the absorbent).
Analysis of synthesis routes
The second step of the implemented approach for the development od eco-design recommendations for SolDAC. This analysis consists of characterizing the previously screened materials according to their required mass for the different processes that are comprised within SolDAC’s technology, along with the energy consumption of those processes. This process, formally known as the building of a Life Cycle Inventory, is then followed by the environemntal impact assessment. This second stage of the eco-design approach is fundamental, as it determines not only the magnitude of the determined imapcts, but also it might mitigate the concern for materials criticality if the critical raw materials are used in small amounts relative to the total mass input of the process.
Balance of Plant (BoP)
The Balance of Plant (BoP) is a power engineering term which refers to the various supporting and auxiliary components of a power plant system required to produce energy.
BoP systems provide the support needed to keep the plant running stably and efficiently. Some important balance of plant components include inverters, transformers, switchgear, circuit breakers, etc. while the primary power generating equipment includes turbines, power generators, etc.
A BoP power plant system is comprised of both electrical and mechanical devices.
Break-even analysis entails calculating and examining the margin of safety for an entity based on the revenues collected and associated costs. In other words, the analysis shows how many sales it takes to pay for the cost of doing business. Analyzing different price levels relating to various levels of demand, the break-even analysis determines what level of sales are necessary to cover the company’s total fixed costs. A demand-side analysis would give a seller significant insight into selling capabilities.
A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced.
Capital Expenditure or Capital Expense. An amount spent to acquire or upgrade productive assets (such as buildings, machinery and equipment, vehicles) in order to increase the capacity or efficiency of a company for more than one accounting period. Also called capital spending.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a way of reducing carbon emissions, which could be key to helping to tackle global warming. It’s a three-step process, involving: capturing the carbon dioxide produced by power generation or industrial activity, such as steel or cement making; transporting it; and then storing it deep underground. CCS involves the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial processes, such as steel and cement production, or from the burning of fossil fuels in power generation. This carbon is then transported from where it was produced, via ship or in a pipeline, and stored deep underground in geological formations.
Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)
Carbon capture, use, and storage (CCUS) is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil power generation and industrial processes for storage deep underground or re-use.
Units used in a system that allows organizations the right to produce a certain amount of carbon, and allows them to buy or sell those rights
Carbon emission trading
Emission trading (ETS) for carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG) is a form of carbon pricing; also known as cap and trade (CAT) or carbon pricing. It is an approach to limit climate change by creating a market with limited allowances for emissions. This can lower competitiveness of fossil fuels and accelerate investments into low carbon sources of energy such as wind power and photovoltaics. Fossil fuels are the main driver for climate change.
The carbon footprint represents the total volume of greenhouse gases (GG) resulting from everyday economic and human activity. Knowing the carbon footprint of an activity, which is measured in tons of CO2 emissions, is important when it comes to taking measures and launching initiatives to reduce it to the lowest possible level. It all starts with what each individual does every day.
Carbon neutrality is a state of net zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be achieved by reducing emissions, most of which come from the burning of fossil fuels, and by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The term is used in the context of carbon dioxide-releasing processes associated with transport, energy production, agriculture, and industry.
Although the term “carbon neutral” is used, a carbon footprint also includes other greenhouse gases, measured in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalence. The term climate-neutral reflects the broader inclusiveness of other greenhouse gases in climate change, even if CO2 is the most abundant.
A carbon sink is anything that absorbs more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases – for example, plants, the ocean and soil.
A carbon source is anything that releases more carbon into the atmosphere than it absorbs – for example, the burning of fossil fuels or volcanic eruptions.
The process of making a chemical reaction happen more quickly by using a catalyst.
Something that makes a chemical reaction happen more quickly without itself being changed.
The circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. In this way, the life cycle of products is extended.
In practice, it implies reducing waste to a minimum. When a product reaches the end of its life, its materials are kept within the economy wherever possible thanks to recycling. These can be productively used again and again, thereby creating further value.
This is a departure from the traditional, linear economic model, which is based on a take-make-consume-throw away pattern. This model relies on large quantities of cheap, easily accessible materials and energy.
Also part of this model is planned obsolescence, when a product has been designed to have a limited lifespan to encourage consumers to buy it again.
Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. Such shifts can be natural, due to changes in the sun’s activity or large volcanic eruptions. But since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.
Climate Change Mitigation
Mitigating climate change means reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This involves cutting greenhouse gases from main sources such as power plants, factories, cars, and farms. Forests, oceans, and soil also absorb and store these gases, and are an important part of the solution. Reducing and avoiding our emissions requires us to reshape everything we do — from how we power our economy and grow our food, to how we travel and live, and the products we consume. It is a problem felt locally and globally.
Reducing emissions requires rethinking society, economics, science and politics.
It is a strategically planned process that starts at the outset of the action and continues throughout its entire lifetime, aimed at promoting the action and its results. It requires strategic and targeted measures for communicating about (i) the action and (ii) its results to a multitude of audiences, including the media and the public and possibly engaging in a two-way exchange.
Actions designed for use only if certain events occur.
Cradle-to-grave assessment considers impacts at each stage of a product’s life-cycle, from the time natural resources are extracted from the ground and processed through each subsequent stage of manufacturing, transportation, product use, and ultimately, disposal.
Critical Raw Materials (CRM)
Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) are those raw materials which are economically and strategically important for the European economy, but have a high-risk associated with their supply. Used in environmental technologies, consumer electronics, health, steel-making, defence, space exploration, and aviation, these materials are not only ‘critical’ for key industry sectors and future applications, but also for the sustainable functioning of the European economy.
It is important to note that these materials are not classified as ‘critical’ because these materials are considered scarce, rather they are classified as ‘critical’ because:
- They have a significant economic importance for key sectors in the European economy, such as consumer electronics, environmental technologies, automotive, aerospace, defence, health and steel.
- They have a high-supply risk due to the very-high import dependence and high level of concentration of set critical raw materials in particular countries.
- There is a lack of (viable) substitutes, due to the very unique and reliable properties of these materials for existing, as well as future applications
Data Management Plan
Document that describes the data management life cycle for all datasets to be collected, processed or generated by a research project.
Direct Air Capture (DAC)
Direct air capture is a technology that uses chemical reactions to pull carbon dioxide out of air. When air moves over these chemicals, they selectively react with and trap CO2, allowing the other components of air to pass through. Today’s leading systems use either liquid solvents or solid sorbents, which are composed of common chemicals that are already in use in other applications today, from soap to water filtration.
Once carbon dioxide is captured from the atmosphere, heat is typically applied to release it from the solvent or sorbent. Doing so regenerates the solvent or sorbent for another capture cycle. Other systems in development use electrochemical processes, which could reduce energy needs and cost.
The captured CO2 can then be injected deep underground for sequestration in certain geologic formations or used in various products and applications. The carbon benefit of use in products, or the net quantity of carbon that is durably stored, depends on the product. Use in products like concrete or plastic can provide long-term sequestration (decades or even centuries), whereas using carbon dioxide in products like beverages or synthetic fuel would quickly re-release carbon into the atmosphere. In some cases — jet fuel for example — synthetic fuel produced with CO2 could still be a more favorable substitute for more emissions-intensive fossil fuel. However, to maximize climate benefit, most captured CO2 would need to go to vast and permanent underground sequestration rather than useful but more limited utilization routes.
Means to make the results of a project public (by any appropriate means other than
protecting or exploiting them, e.g. scientific publications).
Systematic approach that considers the enviornmental impacts related to design and development of a product with the objective of reducing its overall envrionemntal footprint during its life cycle.
The Ecoinvent database is a repertory of inventories made up of materials, processes, emissions, waste treatments, and infrastructure. It is used to model the Life Cycle Inventory of a process to be assessed through an LCA. When carrying out LCAs for SolDAC, Ecoinvent is used to retrieve the information necessary for modeling the processes to be assessed using the EF3.0 methodology in SimaPro.
Electricity Balance of Plant (EBoP)
EBoP systems regulate, monitor, and protect power plant components using low, medium, and high voltage electrical devices. Some EBoP systems include:
Power transformers – Used to step up or down the voltage to required levels to keep the plant running efficiently. Transformers work using a number of core windings which transfer electrical energy via electromagnetic induction.
Auxiliary transformers – Work alongside the power transformers to supply power to the various auxiliary equipment of the power plant during normal operation.
Circuit breakers – Automatic power cut-off/switching devices used for overcurrent and short-circuit protection in power plants. Circuit breakers are essential EBoP devices which help prevent damage to sensitive components of the power plant.
Switchgear – Similar in function to circuit breakers, the switchgear is a combination of switching devices, fuses, and circuit breakers. The primary function of the switchgear is to isolate sections of the electrical systems where a fault has been identified. Power plants utilize both high and low-voltage switchgear for overcurrent protection in devices such as transformers, motors, pumps, etc.
Surge arresters – Surge arresters are devices used to provide overvoltage protection in power plants. They are typically connected between a conductor terminal at the point of connection to equipment and an earth point and channels overvoltage away safely as soon as it occurs. Power surges or transient voltages can damage electrical components if left unmitigated.
Electrical busbars – Busbars transmit electrical energy from the generating section to step-up transformers. A busbar is a strip of naked copper metal usually housed inside a panel board or switchgear and enables high power distribution.
A conductor, not necessarily metallic, through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic medium, as an electrolytic cell, arc generator, vacuum tube, or gaseous discharge tube.
he word “lysis” means to dissolve or break apart, so the word “electrolysis” literally means to break substances apart by using electricity. Electrolysis is the chemical decomposition and/or dissociation of organic and inorganic substances by an electrical current. The electrolytic cell contains an anode and a cathode, where separate oxidation and reduction reactions (loss and gain of electrons, respectively) occur.
Environmental Footprint 3.0
EF3.0 is a methodology uploaded to SimaPro in order to perform the impact assessment of the LCAs carried out with the software. It is comprised of 28 impact categories, normalization values, and weighting factors. The methodology compliates each material, process and emission available in the inventory databases uploaded to SimaPro and characterizes it with a reported value for each impact category. To calculate the single-score environmental impact of a process (e.i. an aggregated value of overall impact considering all categories), the methodology normalizes the impacts of the process in all categories to a single adimensional unit and then weights those normalized impacts in order to report a weighted average value. This methodology is useful for SolDAC as its use when performing LCAs is advised by the European Commission.
Ethanol (abbr. EtOH; also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic compound. It is an alcohol with the chemical formula C2H6O. Its formula can also be written as CH3−CH2−OH or C2H5OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group). Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a characteristic wine-like odor and pungent taste. It is a psychoactive recreational drug, and the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks.
Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation process of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration. Historically it was used as a general anesthetic, and has modern medical applications as an antiseptic, disinfectant, solvent for some medications, and antidote for methanol poisoning and ethylene glycol poisoning. It is used as a chemical solvent and in the synthesis of organic compounds, and as a fuel source.
Respect fundamental rights and highest ethical societal standards with research integrity in order to adequately respond to societal challenges. Ensure open, responsive and transparent processes
Ethylene is a colorless, flammable and gaseous compound, simple unsaturated two-carbon molecule (H2C=CH2) that features a carbon–carbon double bond. Ethylene is one of the most important raw materials in the petrochemical industry. Ethylene is also a naturally occurring plant hormones, being a key regulator of plant growth and development (…), and fruit development ripening.
The systematic collection of information about the activities, characteristics and outcomes of programs for use by specific people to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness and make decisions with regard to what these programs are doing
The term “stakeholder” within an evaluation context, refers to those who have a vested interest in that which is being evaluated, and thus, would be in a position to use the evaluation results in some way. Depending on their role relative to the program or initiative being evaluated, stakeholders are positioned to use evaluation findings in different ways
The utilisation of results in further research activities other than those covered by the action concerned, or in developing, creating and marketing a product or process, or in creating and providing a service, or in standardisation activities
Set of guiding principles to make data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable.
The Fresnel Collector is a linear concentrating solar thermal collector optimized for industrial applications. It can provide heat up to 400°C and operate with pressures up to 120 bars.
Full Spectrum Solar (FSS) collector
The full spectrum solar collector technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles for high temperature and low fire danger, stores heat in particles instead of molten salt for low cost, and uses actively cooled InGaP/GaAs 2J ELO PV cells with backside IR reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency.
The third and final step of the eco-design approach consists of appending the previously assessed material criticality and enviornmental impacts of the different components with their functionality within the technology. This stage of the methodology seeks to demonstrate the role of the components in the task of reaching breakthrough performances in the different KPIs for the technology. The evolution of SolDAC’s TRL must be in line wth finding a trade-off between performance and overall environmental impact.
Gender equality is about promoting gender balance in teams and in decision-making bodies, as well as considering always bodies, and considering always the gender dimension in research and innovation to improve the quality and social relevance of the results.
Governance is any form of coordination that fosters and mainstreams the process dimensions and outcomes of RRI within an organisation or in the interaction with others. It entails hard and soft multilevel structures, guidelines and arrangements with the aim to optimize our responsivity to societal challenges, needs and concerns and to consciously institutionalise responsible.
Heat Exchanger (HEX)
A heat exchanger is a system used to transfer heat between a source and a working fluid. Heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.
Integration Readiness Level (IRL)
Integration readiness level (IRL) is a systematic measurement of the interfacing of compatible interactions for various technologies and the consistent comparison of the maturity between integration points (Technology Readiness Levels – TRLs).
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
The internal rate of return (IRR) is a metric used in financial analysis to estimate the profitability of potential investments. IRR is a discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows equal to zero in a discounted cash flow analysis.
IRR calculations rely on the same formula as NPV does. IRR is not the actual dollar value of the project. It is the annual return that makes the NPV equal to zero.
Generally speaking, the higher an internal rate of return, the more desirable an investment is to undertake. IRR is uniform for investments of varying types and, as such, can be used to rank multiple prospective investments or projects on a relatively even basis. In general, when comparing investment options with other similar characteristics, the investment with the highest IRR probably would be considered the best.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, by compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs; interpreting the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment phases in relation to the objectives of the study.
Metal Organic Framework (MOF)
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. The organic ligands included are sometimes referred to as “struts” or “linkers”, one example being 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC).
More formally, a metal–organic framework is a coordination network with organic ligands containing potential voids. A coordination network is a coordination compound extending, through repeating coordination entities, in one dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in two or three dimensions; and finally a coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating coordination entities extending in one, two, or three dimensions. Most of the MOFs reported in the literature are crystalline compounds, but there are also amorphous MOFs, and other disordered phases.
In most cases for MOFs, the pores are stable during the elimination of the guest molecules (often solvents) and could be refilled with other compounds. Because of this property, MOFs are of interest for the storage of gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Other possible applications of MOFs are in gas purification, in gas separation, in water remediation, in catalysis, as conducting solids and as supercapacitors.
Measure that implies a reduction in the probability and/or impact of an adverse risk event within acceptable threshold limits
Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. The size of the pores is generally 100 nm or smaller. Most nanoporous materials can be classified as bulk materials or membranes. Activated carbon and zeolites are two examples of bulk nanoporous materials, while cell membranes can be thought of as nanoporous membranes.
Negative Emission Technologies (NETs)
‘Negative emissions’ technologies (NETs), also known as Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR) technologies, remove greenhouse gases – usually carbon dioxide – from the atmosphere and they are needed to prevent the worst effects of climate change.
Net Present Value (NPV)
Net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows over a period of time. NPV is used in capital budgeting and investment planning to analyze the profitability of a projected investment or project.
NPV is the result of calculations that find the current value of a future stream of payments, using the proper discount rate. In general, projects with a positive NPV are worth undertaking while those with a negative NPV are not.
Net Zero refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) that’s produced and the amount that’s removed from the atmosphere. It can be achieved through a combination of emission reduction and emission removal.
The act of making peer-reviewed scientific publications accessible to anyone free of charge.
Open Research Data Pilot
The ORDP aims to improve and maximise access to, and re-use of research data generated by Horizon 2020 projects and takes into account the need to balance openness and protection of scientific information, commercialisation and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), privacy concerns, security as well as data management and preservation questions. The ORD pilot applies primarily to the data needed to validate the results presented in scientific publications. Other data can also be provided by the beneficiaries on a voluntary basis, as stated in their Data Management Plans. Costs associated with open access to research data, can be claimed as eligible costs of any Horizon 2020 grant.
Provide easily understood scientific advancements and results in open platforms. Open science represents an approach to research that is collaborative, transparent and accessible
An operating expense is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system. Its counterpart, a capital expenditure (capex), is the cost of developing or providing non-consumable parts for the product or system. For example, the purchase of a photocopier involves capex, and the annual paper, toner, power and maintenance costs represents opex. For larger systems like businesses, opex may also include the cost of workers and facility expenses such as rent and utilities. Also known as operating expenditure, operational expense, operational expenditure or opex.
The term payback period refers to the amount of time it takes to recover the cost of an investment. Simply put, it is the length of time an investment reaches a breakeven point.
People and corporations mainly invest their money to get paid back, which is why the payback period is so important. In essence, the shorter payback an investment has, the more attractive it becomes. Determining the payback period is useful for anyone and can be done by dividing the initial investment by the average cash flows.
Photo-Electrochemical Conversion (PEC)
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) CO2 conversion can be considered as an artificial photosynthesis technique that produces formate, formaldehyde, formic acid, methane, methanol, ethanol, etc.
Photovoltaic-thermal solar collector
Photovoltaic thermal collectors, typically abbreviated as PVT collectors and also known as hybrid solar collectors, photovoltaic thermal solar collectors, PV/T collectors or solar cogeneration systems, are power generation technologies that convert solar radiation into usable thermal and electrical energy. PVT collectors combine photovoltaic solar cells (often arranged in solar panels), which convert sunlight into electricity, with a solar thermal collector, which transfers the otherwise unused waste heat from the PV module to a heat transfer fluid. By combining electricity and heat generation within the same component, these technologies can reach a higher overall efficiency than solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal (T) alone.
Probability and impact matrix
A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate or high by combining the two dimensions of a risk: its probability of occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.
The sets of facts, information, and statistics in the technical work packages that lead to the information reported in project deliverables or scientific publications.
Deliverables, dissemination materials, communication materials, stakeholder information or other content produced by the project for which the project’s consortium has decided to apply both data management principles (FAIR) and Open Access principles (free and available to anyone).
Engaging all societal actors and stakeholders: researchers, innovators, industry, policy-makers, civil society and citizens for joint active participation in the research and innovation processes from co-definition to co-constructionof innovative solutions, products and services for better alignment with society’s values, needs and expectations
Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
RRI is a method of anticipating the possible consequences of research and innovation, putting issues in the open, and involving society in discussions about how science and technology can help make the world a better place
Return on Investment (ROI)
Return on investment (ROI) is a performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency or profitability of an investment or compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. ROI tries to directly measure the amount of return on a particular investment, relative to the investment’s cost.
To calculate ROI, the benefit (or return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment. The result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio.
An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one project objective.
Process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting characteristics.
Science Education focuses on enhancing the current education process to better equip citizens with the necessary knowledge and skills so they can participate in research and innovation debates; and increasing the number of researchers
Screening of material critiality
The first step of the implemented approach for the development of eco-design recommendations for SolDAC. The screening consists of reviewing the materials listed in SolDAC’s Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and checking for coincidences with the European Commission’s latest List of Critical Raw Materials. Those materials that are categorized as critical are not advised for implementation, those that are strategic are not of concern but avoiding them is advised when possible.
SimaPro is a software for carrying out Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) with preloaded methodologies and databases. It provides an environment to model processes with their respective inputs from nature and the technosphere, products, avoided products, emissions, and waste treatment; for their later impact assessment. This tool will allow for the development of Tasks 6.1 and 6.2, related to ecodesign recommendations and the full LCA of SolDAC, respectively.
A process of learning about, accepting, and adapting to an innovation.
Social and Socio-economic Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA)
A social and socio-economic Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) is a social impact (and potential impact) assessment technique that aims to assess the social and socio-economic aspects of products and their potential positive and negative impacts along their life cycle encompassing extraction and processing of raw materials; manufacturing; distribution; use; re-use; maintenance; recycling; and final disposal. S-LCA complements environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA) with social and socio-economic aspects. It can either be applied on its own or in combination with E-LCA.
Societal Readiness Level (SRL)
Societal Readiness Level (SRL) is a way of assessing the level of societal adaptation of, for instance, a particular social project, a technology, a product, a process, an intervention, or an innovation (whether social or technical) to be integrated into society. If the societal readiness for the social or technical solution is expected to be low, suggestions for a realistic transition towards societal
adaptation are required. Naturally, the lower the societal adaptation is, the better the plan for transition must be. SRL 1 is the lowest and SRL 9 is the highest level.
Techno-Economic Assessment (TEA)
A techno-economic assessment (TEA) is an integrated evaluation of the technological performance and economic feasibility of a (new) process or value chain with the aim to identify the most important underlying parameters for its economic feasibility.
Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) are a type of measurement system used to assess the maturity level of a particular technology. Each technology project is evaluated against the parameters for each technology level and is then assigned a TRL rating based on the projects progress. There are nine technology readiness levels. TRL 1 is the lowest and TRL 9 is the highest.
Ease of access and/or use of a product. Extent to which a system, product or service can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.
Zeolites are microporous, crystalline aluminosilicate materials commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.